A drilling machine is used for digging the surface of the Earth to reach and extract underground elements like oil, natural gas, and water. Water well drilling is done to locate a groundwater resource. Some underground water points can be very difficult, and hence challenging to reach via surface mining.
Rainwater seeps down the soil and the rock to get trapped above non-permeable zones of saturation. These areas are called aquifers. A water well is drilled to extract water from aquifers located deep down the Earth’s crust. A random and near-the-surface aquifer does not produce water in much quantity. Hence, it is important to identify a fractured zone and drill a water well there. Rotary water drilling machines will dig vertically into the well and are best suited for drilling water.
What Does a Bore Well Look Like
At the bottom, we have a bore well, i.e., the source where the water is collected. Its mouth can be wider than the actual water resource of it can be narrower to suit the water demand. The size of the mouth of the bore well drilling machine will be regulated likewise. Connected to the bore well will be the casing. The casing is a pipe that is wider than the drilling pipe and is used to line the bore well. Then there is cement lining around the casing to prevent any kind of water leakage. There are other technical components to the water drilling machine. However, these were the main ones.
How Do They Work
The drill has to be transported and set up at the right spot. Rotatory drills will use the circular motion of the drill head to dig inside the surface. This circular motion is called pounder. The technique employed here is cabled drilling in which weight is raised and lowered. Rock gets thrown to the surface in the process. Water or mud is used to cool the drill head which may heat up due to rotation. The drilling is usually done well before the water bed to ensure long years of water supply.
To prevent the collapse of the walls around and contamination of the water source, casings made of steel or plastic are lined around the bore well up to the surface level. A gravel filling between the wall of the well and the casing called an annulus is also constructed to keep the contaminants at bay.
Bore well drilling machines are easy to maintain. Because they deal with water, they are easier to clean. This also saves time involved in cleaning drills. Regular repair of the drill head is required though because harsh surfaces damage them quickly. They also reduce the work of the laborers working in the field. Workers are allowed some independence. Water drilling machines are mostly autonomous. They are designed to be lightweight as compared to other rigs. Hence, transportation, once on the surface, becomes easier. They are also economically efficient. Hence, they can increase productivity, save energy and lower the costs involved in drilling.